The SQL BACKUP DATABASE statement is used to create a backup of an existing database. This command is essential for preserving data, enabling recovery in case of data loss, corruption, or other unexpected issues. Note that the syntax and support for this statement may vary between different SQL database systems.


-- For SQL Server
BACKUP DATABASE database_name
TO DISK = 'file_pathile_name.bak';

-- For MySQL
mysqldump -u user -p database_name > backup_file.sql;

-- For PostgreSQL
pg_dump -U user -F c database_name > backup_file.dump;

-- For Oracle
expdp user/password@database_name directory=backup_dir dumpfile=backup_file.dmp;
  • BACKUP DATABASE: This is the SQL Server keyword used to create a backup of a database.
  • database_name: This specifies the name of the database to back up.
  • TO DISK: This specifies the location where the backup file will be saved.
  • file_path ile_name.bak: This specifies the path and name of the backup file.
  • mysqldump: This is the MySQL utility used to create a database backup.
  • -u user -p: This specifies the MySQL user and prompts for the password.
  • database_name: This specifies the name of the database to back up (MySQL).
  • pg_dump: This is the PostgreSQL utility used to create a database backup.
  • -U user -F c: This specifies the PostgreSQL user and the format (custom) for the backup.
  • expdp: This is the Oracle utility used to export data for backup.
  • user/password@database_name: This specifies the Oracle user, password, and database to back up.
  • directory=backup_dir: This specifies the Oracle directory object for the backup.
  • dumpfile=backup_file.dmp: This specifies the name of the Oracle backup file.


Let's go through a complete example that includes creating a database, inserting data into the database, and then creating a backup of the database using SQL Server.

Step 1: Creating a Database

This step involves creating a new database named example_db.


In this example, we create a database named example_db.

Step 2: Creating a Table and Inserting Data

In this step, we create a table named employees within the previously created database and insert some sample data.

USE example_db;

CREATE TABLE employees (
    first_name VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    last_name VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    email VARCHAR(100),
    hire_date DATE

INSERT INTO employees (first_name, last_name, email, hire_date) VALUES
('John', 'Doe', 'john.doe@example.com', '2023-01-01'),
('Jane', 'Smith', 'jane.smith@example.com', '2023-02-01'),
('Alice', 'Johnson', 'alice.johnson@example.com', '2023-03-01'),
('Bob', 'Brown', 'bob.brown@example.com', '2023-04-01');

Here, we define the employees table and insert four rows of data into the table.

Step 3: Creating a Backup of the Database

This step involves creating a backup of the example_db database using SQL Server.

TO DISK = 'C:\backups\example_db.bak';

This command creates a backup file named example_db.bak in the C:\backups directory.

For MySQL, the equivalent command using mysqldump is:

mysqldump -u root -p example_db > C:\backups\example_db.sql;

For PostgreSQL, the equivalent command using pg_dump is:

pg_dump -U postgres -F c example_db > C:\backups\example_db.dump;

For Oracle, the equivalent command using expdp is:

expdp user/password@database_name directory=backup_dir dumpfile=example_db.dmp;

These commands create backups of the example_db database in their respective SQL database systems.